A total of 222 species in 67 families are found in Kitubulu Forest Reserve.. Euphobiaceae and Rubiaceae were the most frequent families. Herbs were identified in just over half the collection sites at Kitubulu. Some liana, pseudo-trees and climbers were also noted, but these occurred with far less frequency. Kitubulu shows greater plant diversity, yet many species are domesticated plants, a sign of human interference. Species of conservation concern (IUCN red list) were noted. Vulnerable trees included the monkey puzzle (Araucaria araucana), the African walnut (Lovoa trichilioides), and the Sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum).
72 bird species, 72 of are found in Kitubulu Forest Reserve.. Most are classified as forest birds and fewer as forest visitors. Of the forest birds, there were fewer forest interior specialist species than forest edge/ generalist species. The large number of forest birds implies that the reserve is still important for forest birds in Uganda. Three species recorded in Kitubulu are Near-Threatened (African cuckoo hawk, Aviceda cuculoides, African marsh harrier, Circus ranivorus, Grey parrot, Psittacus erithacus), . The abundance of water birds in Kitubulu forest is because of its proximity to Lake Victoria.There is a multitude of habitats (wood, grass, and swamp land) accounts for a high diversity of birds in this forest reserve.
Butterflies are an important insect group in studies investigating the use of species-abundance models to detect forest health because butterflies respond rapidly to disturbances in their habitat. Some very active butterflies, especially the Papilionidae, were identified in flight. A total of 69 different butterfly species were recorded in Kitubulu forest reserve All the recognized butterfly families were represented using the sweep net methods in both forests. The Nymphalids were caught in the traps, especially the Satyrinae and Numphalinae. Most of the Acraeainae, Papilioninae, and Danainae are found on the forest edges and along the open patches within the forest where there is much sunlight. This is because these species are active fliers and require warmer conditions to facilitate flight, and most of them feed while flapping their wings. These species are associated with disturbed forests and farm land. The Pieridae, although weak fliers, are also found, including Leptosia, Mylothris, and Nepheronia, in Kitubulu forest reserve, flying just a few meters above the ground. These sightings are a positive sign of butterfly viability.
Rodents, bats, and squirrels comprised the biodiversity assessment of small mammals in the Kitubulu Forest Reserve. Some individuals can be identified on sight while traversing forest transects.. Mammals belonging to three orders (Carnivora, Chiroptera, and Rodentia) were identified, with 11 species in Kitubulu. In total, 7 species of rodents including rats and squirrels were noted. Three of the forested environment dependent species of rodents (Lophuromys flavopunctatus and Praomys jacksoni, ) commonly occur in high abundance in the right habitats, in Kitubulu Forest Reserve.There are many species of insect and fruit bats in Kitubulu. Interestingly, Bocage’s fruit bat (Rousettus angolensis) and the African hammer head bat (Hypsignathus monstrosus), species that are largely forested environment fruit bats, are also found in Kitubulu. Three other species of bats (Epomophorus labiatus, Rousettus angolensis and Chaerophon pumila) are typically open environment species, although in some places Rousettus angolensis is common in forests. Of these, only Epomophorus labiatus are in high levels of relative abundance in the Kitubulu forest. Two species of bats (Epomops franqueti and Rhinolophus alcyone) are the most abundant. Both are forest interior species and quite common in low to mid altitude forests of Uganda.
Very little is known about the status of primates in Kitubulu forest reserve compared to larger forests, like Kibale, whose primate densities attract researchers and tourists.
Four monkey species were encountered in the forest reserve. These were the Red tail (Cercopithecus ascanius), Black and white colobus (Colobus guereza), Vervet (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), and the Grey-cheeked mangabey (Lophocebus albigena). Red tail monkeys in groups of 5-12 individuals are the most common and most often found along the forest edge rather than the forest interior, as is the case in other forest reserves. Red tails were almost absent from the severely degraded portion of Kitubulu west of the Kampala-Entebbe highway; only one group was recorded in this location. Its absence is attributed to encroachment, which has more or less eliminated potential sources of fruit, a major component of the red tails’ diet. Black and white colobus monkeys in groups averaging 7 members were the second most common primate . In Kitubulu, groups were confined to a small strip of riparian forest, mainly composed of raphia palms, along the lake shore
Black and white colobus monkeys consume fruits, which occur at relatively low densities in both forest.. In Kitubulu, the raphia palm trees are vital for the continued survival of both black and white and red tail monkeys; yet, these continue to be harvested for handcrafts and household use, thereby reducing their quantity as food sources and habitats for primates. Previous reports indicated that vervet monkeys were commonly found in Kitubulu forest. Vervets are currently rare in Kitubulu,
Africa Sceneries Tours & Safaris Ltd
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Africa Sceneries Tours & Safaris is an indigenous company offering some of the most experiential, client-centered tour services in Uganda and Rwanda. Our all-round menu includes off-the-beaten track birding, adventure, trek- king, wildlife safaris, honey moon safaris, water rafting, research and camping experiences among others.